Understanding the various communication styles is crucial because it helps you recognize your own way of communicating. Knowing these styles can make your interactions smoother, show respect towards others, and foster effective communication. This not only reduces conflicts but also strengthens relationships.

By getting to know the different communication styles, you can hone your skills to become more effective and assertive in your conversations. Assertiveness is all about respecting yourself and others while being able to express your thoughts and feelings clearly and honestly.

But remember, being assertive doesn’t guarantee getting everything your way. It’s more about finding common ground and reaching compromises that, even if not ideal, leave you feeling content because you’ve managed the situation well. This reduces any lingering bitterness or upset. And the best part? Anyone can learn to be more assertive. It might take some practice and patience, but it’s definitely achievable.

You can start practicing assertiveness in the comfort of your home, either alone or with a trusted friend who can provide constructive feedback. It’s important to consider who you’re talking to, how to initiate the conversation, and how to handle the interaction.

Before you can dive into practicing assertive communication, it’s essential to figure out your default communication style. Although there are many styles, here are 7 key ones that, when used appropriately, can help you reach your communication goals. Not every style is recommended for all situations, but understanding and applying them correctly can be quite beneficial.


This style is highly recommended and is a sign of strong self-esteem. It’s a healthy way to communicate, increasing your chances of achieving your goals. When you’re assertive, you can express yourself clearly and confidently without resorting to manipulation or playing games. You understand your boundaries and refuse to be pressured into doing something just because someone else wants or needs you to. Despite its benefits, it’s surprising that this is the least commonly used style.

Using assertiveness allows you to meet your objectives while respecting others. You protect your rights and show respect for others’ rights, expressing your needs and feelings clearly. Assertive communication involves making decisions and owning up to them, asking directly for what you need, using “I” statements to express how you feel, and acknowledging that not everyone will agree with you.

Key features of this style include maintaining good eye contact, using calm and controlled gestures, and speaking in a clear, moderate tone. This clarity makes it easier for others to understand what you expect or how you feel, fostering respect and simplifying communication. By adopting an assertive communication style, you not only feel better about yourself but also ensure the other person feels valued and heard.

The Aggressive Style

This communication style is all about winning, often at the cost of someone else. Those who use this style tend to believe their needs, rights, and contributions are more significant than others’. However, this approach is not effective for clear communication; people often react more to the aggressive delivery than to the message itself.

Aggressive communicators may use a loud, frightening, threatening, or hostile tone. They rely on intimidation, disrespect, and bullying to get what they want, always aiming to come out on top. Their body language may appear larger than life, with rapid, large, and sharp gestures, all designed to dominate and coerce the other person into compliance.

Many people naturally avoid confrontation, leading them to acquiesce just to end a dispute. Those on the receiving end of aggression tend to become uncooperative, defensive, and hurt, feeling afraid, humiliated, and losing respect for the aggressor. Some may respond with aggression in kind, escalating the situation to potential verbal or physical violence. This creates an environment where people are hesitant to report issues or mistakes for fear of an aggressive outburst, leading to unresolved conflicts and unhealthy relationships.

The Passive-Aggressive Style

This communication approach looks passive on the outside but is actually a way of expressing anger indirectly or covertly. Often adopted by those feeling powerless, such as prisoners of war, it’s chosen by individuals who feel they lack control and are filled with resentment. They express their frustrations by subtly undermining those they resent, even at their own expense. This is essentially acting on the principle of “cutting off your nose to spite your face.”

People using this style tend to be indirectly aggressive, sullen, and complain a lot. They can be deceitful and patronizing, often resorting to gossip and two-faced behavior. They’ll appear friendly and agreeable face to face, but behind the scenes, they engage in harmful gossip or sabotage. Despite their harmful actions, they often manage to deceive others with their pleasant demeanor and sweet talk, making it difficult for others to spot their true intentions.

Those on the receiving end of this communication style usually end up feeling hurt, angry, confused, and resentful. This damages trust and makes them hesitant to cooperate with the passive-aggressive individual in the future. While this approach might sometimes achieve desired outcomes, it leaves a lasting negative impact. People become skeptical of the sincerity of the passive-aggressive person, suspecting ulterior motives even in genuine interactions. This leads to a build-up of unresolved anger and resentment, as needs and wants are not directly communicated.

The Submissive Style

Individuals who adopt this communication style prioritize pleasing others and steering clear of conflicts. They place others’ needs above their own, believing those needs to be more important. This belief often leads them to contribute less, thinking their input isn’t as valuable as that of others, whom they perceive to have more rights.

This approach can result in feelings of inferiority and difficulties in relationships with colleagues and friends. Being overly submissive can damage your self-esteem, as it’s akin to allowing yourself to be walked over. People who communicate submissively tend to be overly apologetic and go out of their way to avoid any form of confrontation. They’re likely to give in to others’ preferences easily and struggle to express their own needs and desires.

Submissive communicators often see themselves as victims and may blame others for their circumstances. They usually find it challenging to take responsibility for their actions or make decisions. From the perspective of the receiver, this can be frustrating and may lead to feelings of guilt or irritation. They might perceive the submissive person as someone they can easily take advantage of, which can lead to resentment and further distance in the relationship.

The Manipulative Style

This communication style is characterized by being cunning, strategic, and clever. Individuals who engage in manipulative communication are adept at influencing or controlling others for their own benefit. They often use ambiguous language, leaving their true intentions hidden, which can make manipulation seem like an efficient strategy for getting what they want. However, this approach comes at a cost, as it shows a lack of consideration for others, focusing solely on the manipulator’s gains.

Manipulative individuals typically avoid direct requests for what they need, instead opting to guilt others into compliance. They might resort to exaggerated displays of emotion, such as artificial tears, to make their act more convincing. Their facial expressions, often resembling a ‘hang dog’ look, make it difficult for others to refuse their requests. Their speech may be envious, patronizing, high-pitched, and overly ingratiating.

Those on the receiving end of manipulative tactics may initially feel guilt and a compulsion to assist however possible. However, over time, these feelings can evolve into frustration and resentment, potentially leading to annoyance, anger, or irritation. The elusive nature of manipulative communicators makes it challenging to understand their position or intentions, complicating attempts to work with them effectively.


This communication style is all about being straightforward, where the speaker presents their message without any embellishment. It involves using clear and unambiguous language that the listener can easily understand. Even though the message might be tough for the receiver to hear, a direct approach ensures that all the necessary information is conveyed, albeit it might come across as blunt. Direct communication makes it easy to understand the speaker’s stance.

The effectiveness of a direct style can also be influenced by cultural contexts, as what’s considered direct in one culture might be perceived differently in another.

For the person receiving the message, this style eliminates the need for guesswork, allowing them to grasp the essence of what’s being said immediately. It’s particularly useful in situations where time is of the essence and clarity is paramount.

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