Mental disorders, often misunderstood and stigmatized, are health conditions involving changes in emotion, thinking, or behavior (or a combination of these). They are associated with distress and problems functioning in social, work, or family activities. Mental illness is common, with more than half of all Americans diagnosed with a mental disorder at some point in their life.1

Mental health problems can range from minor (e.g., temporary stress) to severe (e.g., major depressive disorder). They can affect anyone and are influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and lifestyle.2

Public awareness and education are crucial in addressing mental health issues. Early intervention and treatment are key to improving outcomes and quality of life.


Anger, though a normal and often healthy emotion, can become destructive and lead to various mental and physical health problems. When anger becomes uncontrollable or is expressed in harmful ways, it can lead to mental disorders. These disorders may manifest as aggressive behavior, self-harm, or substance abuse. On the other hand, suppressed anger can lead to depression, anxiety, and passive-aggressive behavior.

The treatment for anger-related disorders typically involves psychotherapy, which helps individuals recognize triggers and learn healthier ways to express anger. Medication may be used in conjunction with therapy to treat underlying mental health conditions contributing to extreme anger.

Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Anxiety disorders are characterized by significant worry or fear that is difficult to control and affects daily activities. Panic attacks, intense episodes of fear, are a common symptom of anxiety disorders. These attacks can cause physical symptoms like heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness.

Treatment for anxiety disorders typically involves psychotherapy, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps patients understand and change their thought patterns. Medications, such as antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs, can also be effective.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic depression, is characterized by extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). During a manic phase, individuals may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. During depressive episodes, they may feel sad, hopeless, and lose interest in most activities.

Treatment usually involves a combination of medications, such as mood stabilizers, and psychotherapy to manage symptoms and prevent relapse.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)

Body dysmorphic disorder is an intense preoccupation with a perceived flaw in physical appearance that to others is either minor or not observable. This disorder can lead to significant anxiety and can trigger repetitive behaviors like mirror checking or excessive grooming.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is often effective in treating BDD. This therapy focuses on altering the negative thoughts about body image and reducing the compulsive behaviors. Medications, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), can also be beneficial.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

Borderline personality disorder is characterized by difficulties in regulating emotion, leading to severe, unstable mood swings, impulsivity, and instability in relationships and self-image. Symptoms include emotional instability, feelings of worthlessness, insecurity, impulsivity, and impaired social relationships.

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy, is often effective for BPD. It focuses on teaching skills to cope with stress, regulate emotions, and improve relationships. Medication can also be used to treat symptoms like mood swings and depression.


Depression is a common but serious mood disorder that affects how you feel, think, and handle daily activities. Symptoms include persistent sadness, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, and feelings of worthlessness.

Treatment for depression usually involves medications, such as antidepressants, and psychotherapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy are particularly effective in treating depression.

Dissociation and Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative disorders involve problems with memory, identity, emotion, perception, and sense of self. Dissociative symptoms can potentially disrupt every area of mental functioning. Examples include dissociative identity disorder, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization/derealization disorder.

Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, which helps individuals integrate the different aspects of their identity into a cohesive self. Medications can be used to treat co-occurring conditions like depression or anxiety.

Eating Problems

Eating disorders are characterized by an obsession with food and body weight. Common types include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. These disorders can lead to severe physical health problems and even be fatal.

Treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutritional education, and medication. Family-based therapy is particularly effective for adolescents with eating disorders.

Hearing Voices

Hearing voices, or auditory hallucinations, can be a symptom of various mental health conditions, like schizophrenia. It can be distressing and impact daily functioning. However, not everyone who hears voices has a mental disorder; it can also occur in people without mental illness.

Treatment depends on the underlying cause. It may include antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia or other mental health disorders, and psychotherapy to help cope with the experience of hearing voices.


Hoarding disorder is characterized by the persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value. This behavior can affect living spaces, impair daily functioning, and lead to distress.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the primary treatment for hoarding disorder. It helps individuals recognize and change their thoughts and behaviors related to hoarding and develop organizational skills.

Hypomania and Mania

Hypomania and mania are periods of abnormally elevated mood and energy levels. Hypomania is less severe than mania and does not cause significant impairment. These episodes are common in bipolar disorder.

Treatment typically involves mood stabilizers and antipsychotics. Psychotherapy can also help manage symptoms and prevent relapse.


Loneliness is a complex emotional response to isolation or lack of companionship. It can contribute to various mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety.

Interventions include social skills training, psychotherapy to address negative thoughts contributing to loneliness, and community engagement activities.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

OCD is characterized by unwanted and intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions). These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily life and cause significant distress.

Treatment usually includes psychotherapy, especially cognitive-behavioral therapy, and medications, such as SSRIs.

Panic Attacks

Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear or discomfort that peak within minutes. Symptoms can include heart palpitations, shortness of breath, trembling, and a feeling of impending doom.

Treatment includes cognitive-behavioral therapy, which teaches coping strategies, and medications, such as SSRIs and benzodiazepines.


Paranoia involves irrational and persistent mistrust or suspicion of others, often leading to a feeling of being persecuted. It can be a symptom of mental disorders like schizophrenia or a standalone paranoid personality disorder.

Treatment often involves psychotherapy, which helps patients build trust and reduce paranoia. Antipsychotic medications may be used if paranoia is part of a broader psychotic disorder.

Personality Disorders

Personality disorders are characterized by enduring, inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that deviate markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture. Common types include borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders.

Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, particularly dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder and cognitive-behavioral therapy for others. Medications may be used to treat specific symptoms.


Phobias are intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations. Common phobias include fear of flying, heights, or certain animals. These fears can be so overwhelming that they interfere with daily life.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy, particularly exposure therapy, is often effective in treating phobias. This involves gradual exposure to the feared object or situation until the fear response diminishes.

Postnatal Depression & Perinatal Mental Health

Postnatal depression is a type of mood disorder that can affect women after childbirth. Symptoms include sadness, fatigue, changes in sleeping and eating patterns, reduced libido, and feelings of inadequacy as a parent.

Treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Support groups and family therapy can also be beneficial.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

PTSD is a disorder that develops in some people who have experienced a shocking, scary, or dangerous event. Symptoms include flashbacks, nightmares, severe anxiety, and uncontrollable thoughts about the event.

Various forms of psychotherapy, especially cognitive-behavioral therapy and exposure therapy, are effective in treating PTSD. Medications, such as SSRIs, can also be helpful.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

PMDD is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), characterized by significant mood swings, irritability, and depression. These symptoms occur during the week before menstruation and improve after the onset of the period.

Treatment often involves lifestyle changes, antidepressants, and hormonal therapies, including birth control pills.


Psychosis refers to a mental state where a person loses touch with reality. Symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and impaired insight. It can occur in the context of several mental disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Treatment typically involves antipsychotic medication and psychotherapy. Early intervention increases the likelihood of a better outcome.

Recreational Drugs, Alcohol, and Addiction

Substance abuse disorders involve the excessive use of alcohol or recreational drugs, leading to health problems, disability, and failure to meet responsibilities. Addiction can significantly impact mental health, contributing to disorders like depression, anxiety, and psychosis.

Treatment often involves a combination of detoxification, behavioral therapies, and support groups. Medication can be used to manage withdrawal symptoms, prevent relapse, or treat co-occurring mental health conditions.

Schizoaffective Disorder

Schizoaffective disorder is characterized by a combination of schizophrenia symptoms, such as hallucinations or delusions, and mood disorder symptoms, like depression or mania. The disorder can result in significant impairments in daily functioning.

Treatment usually includes a combination of antipsychotic medications, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, is also essential for managing symptoms.


Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior that impairs daily functioning.

Antipsychotic medications are the cornerstone of schizophrenia treatment. Psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy and social skills training, can also be beneficial, especially when combined with medication.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Seasonal Affective Disorder is a type of depression that’s related to changes in seasons, typically beginning and ending at about the same times every year. Most people with SAD experience symptoms that start in the fall and continue into the winter months, sapping their energy and making them feel moody.

Treatment for SAD may include light therapy (phototherapy), psychotherapy, and medications. Making changes in the environment and lifestyle can also help alleviate symptoms.


Low self-esteem is typically seen as a personality trait that can be a precursor to certain mental health conditions, including depression and anxiety disorders. It involves negative perceptions about one’s worth and abilities.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in improving self-esteem. This therapy helps individuals challenge and change destructive beliefs about themselves and develop a more positive self-perception.


Self-harm is the act of deliberately harming your own body, such as cutting or burning yourself. It’s often done as a way to cope with painful or strong emotions. Self-harm is most common among teenagers and young adults.

Treatment for self-harm can include psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and dialectical behavior therapy. Medication may be prescribed to treat underlying issues like depression or anxiety.

Sleep Problems

Sleep disorders are conditions that disturb your normal sleep patterns. There are more than 80 different sleep disorders, including insomnia, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, and narcolepsy.

Treatment depends on the specific sleep disorder but may include a combination of medical treatments and lifestyle changes. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be particularly effective for insomnia.


Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. However, excessive or prolonged stress can lead to mental health problems, like depression and anxiety, and physical health problems, such as heart disease and high blood pressure.

Stress management strategies include relaxation techniques, time management skills, counseling or therapy, and healthy lifestyle choices like exercise and a balanced diet.

Suicide Attempt and Suicidal Feelings

Suicidal feelings can range from being preoccupied with abstract thoughts about ending one’s life to formulating a specific plan. A suicide attempt is a clear indication that something is gravely wrong in a person’s life.

Immediate treatment is critical for individuals who have attempted suicide or have serious suicidal thoughts. This can include hospitalization, psychotherapy, and medication. Long-term support and therapy are essential to address the underlying issues causing these feelings.

Tardive Dyskinesia

Tardive dyskinesia is a side effect of some antipsychotic medications used to treat mental illness. It involves involuntary movements, typically of the face, tongue, and limbs.

Treatment may involve stopping or switching medications under medical supervision. Newer antipsychotic drugs have a lower risk of tardive dyskinesia. Medications can also be used to help control symptoms.


Trauma is a response to a deeply distressing or disturbing event that overwhelms an individual’s ability to cope. It can lead to long-term reactions such as unpredictable emotions, flashbacks, strained relationships, and even physical symptoms like headaches or nausea.

Treatment typically includes psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing). Medication can be used to treat symptoms like depression and anxiety.


Understanding mental disorders is critical to removing the stigma associated with them. This comprehensive overview sheds light on various mental health issues, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis and effective treatment. By recognizing the signs and seeking help, individuals can better manage these conditions and improve their quality of life. Mental health is an integral part of overall health, and it’s important for individuals and communities to support mental health awareness and provide resources for those in need.


What is a mental disorder?

A mental disorder is a disruption of mental health that affects a person’s thinking, feeling, and behavior. It can lead to significant discomfort and problems in social, work, or family life.

What are included in mental disorders?

Mental disorders include conditions such as depression, anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, eating disorders, and others.

How to understand if a person is mentally healthy?

A mentally healthy individual is able to cope with normal life challenges, lead a productive life, and contribute to their community. Key indicators include emotional stability, absence of severe mental health symptoms, and the ability to maintain personal and professional relationships.

How many mental disorders are there?

The exact number of mental disorders is difficult to specify as it depends on the classification system used (like DSM-5 or ICD-10). There are hundreds of different mental disorders, each with its own set of symptoms and diagnostic criteria.

What are the 10 types of mental disorders?

1. Anxiety Disorders
2. Mood Disorders (such as Depression and Bipolar Disorder)
3. Schizophrenia and Psychotic Disorders
4. Dementia
5. Eating Disorders
6. Personality Disorders
7. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
9. Autism Spectrum Disorder
10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

What is the hardest mental illness to live with?

It’s subjective, but often disorders like Schizophrenia, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Severe Bipolar Disorder are considered among the hardest due to their profound impact on daily functioning and relationships.

How do I know what mental illness I have?

Self-diagnosis is not recommended. If you suspect you have a mental illness, it’s important to seek a professional evaluation from a psychologist, psychiatrist, or other mental health professional who can conduct a thorough assessment and provide a diagnosis.

What is chronic mental disorder?

A chronic mental disorder is a long-lasting mental health condition that may not have a cure. It often requires ongoing management and treatment. Examples include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

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